GSECARS Scientists Continue to Decode Moon's Mysteries 50 Years Later

Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, Argonne explores its early lunar research as it anticipates studies at the Advanced Photon Source of pristine moon rocks from the final lunar landing missions.

Tomography at 13 BMD

A. Herring, OSU, uses tomography at 13 BMD to quantify pore scale trapping and to analyze how mechanisms affect the efficiency of capillary trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

What Diamond Impurities Tell Us About Earth's Mantle

Pockets of water may lay deep below Earth’s surface.

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell.

X-ray diffraction is the most powerful technique for crystal structure determination. From left to right, patterns from a single crystal, polychrystalline, nano-cyrstalline and amorphous crystals.

High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscopy Module

The HPXTM module helps researchers study the texture change of their sample under extreme pressure and temperature conditions by collecting in-situ HP/HT 3D x-ray tomographic images.

GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS hosts experiments at 13 IDE for high school students in the Exemplary Student Research Program (ESRP) representing local area high schools.

Of Interest

  New / updated Map of Argonne available. Click

  Axis Pro Micromanipultor Workshop, part of APS USer Meeting.

  Partnership for Extreme Crystallography (PX^2) at 13 BMC. Click

  Dioptas Update Available.Click


► Terzano, R., Denecke, M., Falkenberg, G., et al. (2019). Recent advances in analysis of trace elements in environmental samples by X-ray based techniques (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 91(6), pp. 1029-1063. DOI :10.1515/pac-2018-0605

► Shearer,C.K.,  Bell, A.S., Herd, C.D.K., Burger, P.V., Provencio, P., Sharp, Z.D., Papike, J.J.,  The Northwest Africa 8159 (NWA 8159) Martian Meteorite Part 2. Spinel-orthopyroxene intergrowths. A record of fO2 and crust-basalt interactions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 258, 2019, Pages 242_257,

► Qin,F., Wu, X., Qin, S., Zhang, D., Prakapenka, V.B., Jacobsen, S.D., Pressure-induced dehydration of dioptase: A single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study, (2019) Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Volume 351, Issues 2–3, 121-128,

► Zhang, D., Hu, Y., Xu, J., et al. (2019). High-pressure behavior of liebenbergite: The most incompressible olivine-structured silicate. American Mineralogist, 104(4), pp. 580-587., from doi:10.2138/am-2019-6680

► E-Wen Huang, Chih-Ming Lin, Jenh-Yih Juang, Yao-Jen Chang, Yuan-Wei Chang, Chan-Sheng Wu, Che-Wei Tsai, An-Chou Yehd, Sean R. Shieh Ching-Pao Wang, Yu-Chun Chuang, Yen-Fa Liao, Dongzhou Zhang, Tony Huang, Tu-Ngoc Lama, Yi-Hung Chen. (2019). Deviatoric Deformation Kinetics in High Entropy Alloy under Hydrostatic Compression, J Alloys and Compounds 792 : 116.

► Xu, J., Zhang, D., Fan, D., Wu, X., Shi, F., Zhou, W. (2019) Compressional behavior of natural eclogitic zoisite by synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction to 34 GPa. Phys Chem Minerals. 46 (3):333.

► Yong, T., Dera, P., Zhang, D., (2019). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of grunerite up to 25.6 GPa: a new high-pressure clinoamphibole polymorph. Phys Chem Minerals. 46 (3): 215.

► Hao, M., Zhang, J. S., Pierotti, C. E., Ren, Z., & Zhang, D. ( 2019). High‐pressure single‐crystal elasticity and thermal equation of state of omphacite and their implications for the seismic properties of eclogite in the Earth’s interior. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124, 2368– 2377.

► Gualda, G.A.R., Gravely, D.M., Hollman, B., Pamukcu, A.S., Begue, F., Ghiorso, M.S., Deering, C.D., (2018) Climbing the crustal ladder : Magma storage-depth evolution dueing a volvcanic flare-up. Sci. Adv. 4, eaap 7567 DOI : 10.1126/sciadv.aap7567

► Desmau, M., Gelabert, A., Levard, C., Ona-Nguema, G., Vidal, V., Stubbs, J.E., Eng, P.J., Benedetti, M.F. (2018) Dynamics of silver nanoparticles at the solution/biofilm/mineral interface.  Environ. Sci.: Nano. 5: 2394-2405.

► X. Lai, F. Zhu, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Y. Hu, G. J. Finkelstein, P. Dera, B. Chen; The high-pressure anisotropic thermoelastic properties of a potential inner core carbon-bearing phase, Fe7C3, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist ; 103 (10): 1568–1574. doi:

GSECARS is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems:

  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell
  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and imaging using the large-volume press
  • Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
  • Inelastic x-ray scattering
  • X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis
  • Microtomography


GSECARS now has a JEOL Neoscope 6000PLUS scanning electron microscope available to GSECARS users in support of beamline experiments. Users interested in using the SEM should:

1) Submit an ESAF for use of the SEM or, if you have beamtime scheduled at GSECARS, make sure you note use of the SEM in your experiment ESAF. All materials intended to be examined must be listed and pre-approved. 
2) Check with beamline staff to make sure the date for use is available and to have the time reserved on the SEM schedule. All use must be scheduled.
3) Prior to use, all operators MUST be trained by beamline staff on use of the instrument, must have read the available Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the instrument and certify they understand the SOP and agree to fully comply with the stated procedures. Click for SOP.

For information, please contact :
Tony Lanzirotti,


Users interested in using the GSE Raman Lab:

1) Fill out the Raman Lab Reservation Form. 
2) Check to make sure the date is available (multiple users may be able to use the system on the same day)             Raman Lab Calendar
3) Submit an ESAF for use of the GSE Raman Lab or if you have beamtime at GSECARS, make sure you note use of Raman Lab in your experiment ESAF.

For information, please contact :
Vitali Prakapenka,
Eran Greenberg,

Raman Lab Documentation


Science Highlights

Researchers at 13 BMC investigated the dissolution of otavite films grown epitaxially on dolomite (104) surfaces in aqueous solutions to understand the relationships between strain, film thickness, and dissolution rate.

ABSTRACT: Thin films grown on mineral surfaces can immobilize toxic metals in natural systems, but the effects of epitaxy and film thickness on dissolution rates of the overgrowth are typically unknown. To explore these effects, otavite (CdCO3) films were grown on dolomite (104) surfaces from aqueous solutions containing [Cd] = [Ca] = [CO3] = 0.2 mM for 1−48 h and then dissolved in deionized water. Films of various thicknesses and strain states were obtained by varying the growth reaction time. Growth for up to 3 h produced strained thin films with Cd coverages of <4.3 ± 0.6 equivalent monolayers (ML) (corresponding to a thickness of up to 17 Å), whereas reaction times of up to 48 h produced thicker films with as many as 114 ± 14 equivalent ML of Cd. Intrinsic dissolution rates were measured as a function of otavite film thickness by a combination of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, specular X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The initial dissolution rates for unstrained films were comparable to those reported for synthetic otavite powders, whereas the thinnest films (<3.1 ± 1.1 ML) dissolved at a 50% slower rate, indicating that epitaxial strain effectively
enhanced their stability. We discuss potential reasons for this difference.

Erika Callagon La Plante, Sang Soo Lee, Peter J. Eng, Joanne E. Stubbs, Paul Fenter, Neil C. Sturchio, and Kathryn L. Nagy (2019) Dissolutio Kinetics of Epitaxial Cadmium Carbonate Overgrowths on Dolomite, ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2019 3 (2), 212- 220, DOI:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00115

Researchers at 13 IDE, lead by Guilherme Gualda from Vanderbilt University, looked into understanding magma body organization and evolution with time which may ultimately be relevant to hazard assessment.CL image and Ti map shown in (A) demonstrate the correlation between CL intensity and Ti contents in quartz when there are large changes in CL; it can be seen that CL images capture the zoning in more detail, justifying the use of CL images for crystallization time and growth rate determination.

Abstract : Very large eruptions (>50 km3) and supereruptions (>450 km3) reveal Earth’s capacity to produce and store enormous quantities (>1000 km3) of crystal-poor, eruptible magma in the shallow crust. We explore the interplay between crustal evolution and volcanism during a volcanic flare-up in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ, New Zealand) using a combination of quartz-feldspar-melt equilibration pressures and time scales of quartz crystallization. Over the course of the flare-up, crystallization depths became progressively shallower, showing the gradual conditioning of the crust. Yet, quartz crystallization times were invariably very short (<100 years), demonstrating that very large reservoirs of eruptible magma were transient crustal features. We conclude that the dynamic nature of the TVZ crust favored magma eruption over storage. Episodic tapping of eruptible magmas likely prevented a supereruption. Instead, multiple very large bodies of eruptible magma were assembled and erupted in decadal time scales.

Gualda, G.A.R., Gravely, D.M., Hollman, B., Pamukcu, A.S., Begue, F., Ghiorso, M.S., Deering, C.D., (2018) Climbing the crustal ladder : Magma storage-depth evolution dueing a volvcanic flare-up. Sci. Adv. 4, eaap 7567 DOI : 10.1126/sciadv.aap7567


GSECARS hosts a tour of Sector 13 for attendees from the 25th International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis Conference (ICXOM-25).

Matt Newville and Tony Lanzirotti welcome Mauro Rovezzi from Centre National de La Recherche Scientific (CNRS). He will be working with them to commission the emission spectroscopy system at 13 IDE.

GSECARS staff gave a tour to UofC SMART Outreach Program students from Chicago Public Schools.

GSECARS staff scientist Joanne Stubbs gives a tour of GSECARS to REU students from Ohio State, University of Chicago and UIUC.

Students from the Xray Neutron School, 2019 learn from GSECARS staff scientists Matt Newville and Tony Lanzirotti about  synchrotron research techniqies using XAFS.

GSECARS staff scientists Peter Eng and Joanne Stubbs host a group from the Xray Neutron School, 2019 at 13 IDC.

GSECARS summer student Elaine Sun, Neuqua Valley High School, will be working on single crystal small molecule crystallography structure modeling. Her GSE advisor is Dr. Dongzhou Zhang. Welcome Elaine!

GSECARS welcomes summer student Alex Nicolellis from Iowa State University. He is working with Charlie Smith, redesiging and converting the CARS web sites into WordPress among other projects.

Welcome Dr. Jingui Xu, University of Hawaii. Dr. Xu will work at 13 BMC with Dr. Dongzhou Zhang and provide user support and beamline development.


Questions & Answers

General User Questions
Nancy Lazarz
ANL / APS site access
Job Opportunities at GSECARS

Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC)
Vitali Prakapenka

Multi-anvil Press
Yanbin Wang

Mark Rivers

Single Crystal  DAC
Dongzhou Zang

Matt Newville
Tony Lanzirotti

Steve Sutton

Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
Peter Eng
Joanne Stubbs

Gas Loading System
Sergey Tkachev

GSECARS Raman Lab 
Vitali Prakapenka

GSECARS Chemistry Lab 
Joanne Stubbs

GSECARS LVP Sample Prep Lab
Yanbin Wang
Tony Yu