Science Highlights 1

Deep-Focus Earthquake Analogs Recorded at High Pressure and Temperature in the Laboratory

Movie : Animated gif of acoustic emission location time series.

Phase transformations of metastable olivine might trigger deep-focus earthquakes (400 to 700 kilometers) in cold subducting lithosphere. To explore the feasibility of this mechanism, Schubnel et al. performed laboratory deformation experiments on germanium olivine (Mg2GeO4) under differential stress at high pressure (P = 2 to 5 gigapascals) and within a narrow temperature range (T = 1000 to 1250 kelvin). A. Schubnel, F. Brunet, N. Hilairet, J. Gasc, H.w. Green II, "Deep-Focus Earthquake Analogs Recorded at High Pressure and Temperature in teh Laboratory," Science, (2013):341 (6152), 1377-1380, DOI: 10.1126/science.1240206

 

Research using GSECARS 13-IDD and XSD 3-IDB beamlines rules out possibility of a pure bridgmanite lower mantle composition.

 

 

The high-pressure equations of state for 13% Fe and Fe-free bridgmanite
are incorporated into an ideal lattice mixing model enabling the estimation
of thermophysical properties for a large range of ferrous iron compositions. Using this mixture model, we examine the range of plausible values in
temperature composition space relevant to the deep mantle. Through this analysis, we demonstrate that there is no combination of temperature
and composition capable of matching the Earth’s bulk properties near the base of the mantle, ruling out the possibility of a pure bridgmanite lower mantle composition. Click

►Discovery of bridgmanite, Earth's most abundant mineral.

A group of researchers, lead by Oliver Tschauner, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, have described and named the mineral which constitues 38% of the Earth. Examining natural Bridgmanite, named after Percy Bridgman, the 1946 Nobel laureate who pioneered work in high pressure research, using x-ray diffraction at GSECARS the group examined the highly shocked Tenham L6 chrondrite.

 

► Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle

Northwestern University geophysicist Steve Jacobsen and University of New Mexico seismologist Brandon Schmandt with a team of researchers have  found evidence of a long-term H2O trap in the transition zone.

 

► Sulfur-Mediated Electron Shuttling During Bacterial Iron Reduction

 

Illustration shows S0-mediated Fe(lll) reduction under alkaline conditions. Figure courtesy of Ted Flynn / Science.

 

 

► GSECARS LVP Program examines deep-focu earthquakes. Results published in Science.

 

 

 

 

 

► Importance of correlation effects in hep iron revealed by a pressure-induced electronic topological transition

 

 

 

 

 

 

► Mobility and chemical fate of antimony and arsenic in historic mining environments of the kantishna Hills district, denali national park and preserve, alaska

 

 

 

 

 

► Brillouin scattering and x-ray diffraction of solid argon to 65 GPa and 700 K: Shear strength of argon at HP/HT

 

 

 

► Creep of phyllosilicates at the onset of plate tectonics

 

 

 

 

 

 

► Dissolution of Ophiuroid ossicles on the shallow antartic shelf: IMplications for the fossil record and ocean acidification

 

 

 

► Stability and equation of state of Post-aragonite BACo3

 

 

 

 

 

► Abiotic Reductive Immobilization of U(VI) by Biogenic Mackinawite

 

 

 

► Implementation of micro-ball nanodiamond anvils for high-pressure studies above 6 Mbar

 

 

 

 

► Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

 

 

 

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