A. Herring, OSU, uses tomography at 13 BMD to quantify pore scale trapping and to analyze how mechanisms affect the efficiency of capillary trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

Tomography at 13 BMD

Study in 'Science' finds missing piece of biogeochemical puzzle in aquifers using 13-ID-E's sulfur spectroscopy capabilities. Details in Argonne's press release

Paper in Science showcases the new sulfur capabilities at 13 IDE

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell (DAC).

X-ray diffraction is the most powerful technique for crystal structure determination. From left to right, patterns from a single crystal, polychrystalline, nano-cyrstalline and amorphous crystals.

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell.

High pressure x-ray tomographic microscopy module

The HPXTM module helps researchers study the texture change of their sample under extreme pressure and temperature conditions by collecting in-situ HP/HT 3D x-ray tomographic images.

High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscopy Module sitting outside of the 250 ton press in 13 BMD.

Peter Hong, Python Tomography Data Collection Project; Andrea Bryant, Determination of Cr, Ti, & V Valences in Olivine & Pyroxene from Ureilites; Catherine Eng, Design a Low Cost Inelastic X-ray Scattering Analyzer

GSECARS Summer Students 2014

GSECARS is a national user facility
for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems:

  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell
  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and imaging using the large-volume press
  • Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
  • Inelastic x-ray scattering
  • X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis
  • Microtomography

Long Range Mineral Physics Planning Workshop
Final Report Issued



The goal of the planning workshop, held at APS on October 10–12, 2014,
was to scope the array of promising technological developments and
connect them with some of the most compelling questions
in the geosciences. In summary, a written long-range vision report was produced, following the examples of the 2003 Bass Report and
2009 Williams Report.  The workshop and production of the report was supported by a special supplement to NSF grant EAR 1606856.

Dioptas Update Available

Dioptas is a GUI program for fast analysis of powder X-ray diffraction images. It provides the capabilityof calibrating, integrating, creating masks, showing multiple spectrum overlays and display
phases line positions.
Dioptas Documentation

Science Highlight

Newly discovered iron oxides suggest a huge source of oxygen in the Earth's mantle


Newly discovered Fe5O7 and Fe25O32 form under extreme pressures and temperatures from hematite in the lower mantle.

Although chemically very simple, Fe2O3 is known to undergo a series of enigmatic structural, electronic and magnetic transformations at high pressures and high temperatures. So far, these transformations have neither been correctly described nor understood because of the lack of structural data.  Working at PETRA III, ESRF and GSECARS 13 IDD, E. Bykova (University of Bayreuth) et al report a systematic investigation of the behaviour of Fe2O3 at pressures over 100 GPa and temperatures above 2,500 K employing single crystal X-ray diffraction and synchrotron Mo¨ssbauer source spectroscopy. Crystal chemical analysis of structures presented here and known Fe(II, III) oxides shows their fundamental relationships and that they can be described by the homologous series nFeOmFe2O3. Decomposition of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 observed at pressures above 60GPa and temperatures of 2,000 K leads to crystallization of unusual Fe5O7 and Fe25O32 phases with release of oxygen. The findings suggest that mixed-valence iron oxides may play a significant role in oxygen cycling between earth reservoirs.

The results demonstrate clearly the complex behaviour of iron oxide subjected to high pressures and temperatures and may have significant consequences for modelling of the earth’s interior.

E. Bykova, L. Dubrovinsky, N. Dubrovinskaia, M. Bykova, C. McCammon, S.V. Ovsyannikov, H.P. Liermannm I. Kupenko, A. Chumakov, R. Ruffer, M. Hanfland, V. Prakapenka, "Structural complexity of simple Fe2O3 oxide at high pressures and temperatures." Nature Communications, 2016 Feb 11;7:10661.  DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS10661

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