A. Herring, OSU, uses tomography at 13 BMD to quantify pore scale trapping and to analyze how mechanisms affect the efficiency of capillary trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

Tomography at 13 BMD

Artist's rendering of Yellowstone eruption (Discovery Channel)

Study in PloS One finds that Super-eruptions – volcanic events large enough to devastate the entire planet – give only about a year’s warning before they blow. Details in ANL Science Highlights based on press release from Vanderbilt Univ.

Super-Eruptions May Give a Year's Warning Before They Blow

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell (DAC).

X-ray diffraction is the most powerful technique for crystal structure determination. From left to right, patterns from a single crystal, polychrystalline, nano-cyrstalline and amorphous crystals.

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell.

High pressure x-ray tomographic microscopy module

The HPXTM module helps researchers study the texture change of their sample under extreme pressure and temperature conditions by collecting in-situ HP/HT 3D x-ray tomographic images.

High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscopy Module sitting outside of the 250 ton press in 13 BMD.

GSECARS hosts experiments at 13 IDE for high school students in the Exemplary Student Research Program (ESRP) representing local area high schools. GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS is a national user facility
for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems:

  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell
  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and imaging using the large-volume press
  • Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
  • Inelastic x-ray scattering
  • X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis
  • Microtomography


The Science Beneath The Scream

“It is a moral imperative to preserve these works for future generations”.   - Jennifer Mass, President, Scientific Analysis of Fine Art, LLC, Professor, Univ of Delaware

This research is designed to solve an urgent problem facing the world’s fine art museums - the disfigurement of treasured Impressionist and early modernist masterpieces due to 100+ years of light exposure resulting in the physical and chemical breakdown and discoloration of the early synthetic pigments in these works. This problem affects literally billions of dollars of our global cultural heritage, including works by Edvard Munch, Henri Matisse, Georges Seurat, Vincent Van Gogh, and Pablo Picasso.  Edvard Munch’s The Scream (c. 1910), belonging to the Munch Museet (Oslo), has regions of paint degradation (fading and flaking cadmium yellow paints) in the sky, the water behind the central figure, and, most disturbingly, the yellow paint used in the face and neck of the central figure has in several brushstrokes faded away completely to white.

The goal of this current study is to elucidate the discoloration mechanisms observed in the two paintings in question using micro-x-ray diffraction (microXRD) and speciation (microXANES) mapping, to determine if these mechanisms can be correlated with the use of indirect wet process synthesized cadmium sulfide (CdS). Click

Science Highlight

First observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na
(NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K.

Structural Unit of NaH3

The only known compound of sodium and hydrogen is archetypal ionic NaH. Application of high pressure is known to promote states with higher atomic coordination, but extensive searches for polyhydrides with unusual stoichiometry have had only limited success in spite of several theoretical predictions. Here we report the first observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na (NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K.
We combine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and theoretical random structure searching, which both agree on the stable structures and compositions. Our results support the formation of multicenter bonding in a material with unusual stoichiometry. These results are applicable to the design of new energetic solids and high-temperature superconductors based on hydrogen-rich materials.

Viktor V. Struzhkin, Duck Young Kim, Elissaios Stavrou, Takaki Muramatsu, Ho-kwang Mao, Chris J. Pickard, Richard J. Needs, Vitali B. Prakapenka, and Alexander F. Goncharov, “Synthesis of sodium polyhydrides at high pressures,” Nat. Comm. 7, 12267 (26 July 2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12267

APS  Highlight